I use treats if I need to reinforce a command or Java is learning a new command. I will use bits of roast beef, bits of chicken, cooked carrot disks are good. Am trying to watch which treats I buy so I'm just giving her corn meal doctored w/ chemical flavoring and dyes. Shje LOVES freeze-dried lamb lung but that gets a bit pricey, keep that on hand for a special treat after hubby gives Java her mani/pedi (or is it just a pedi?).