Wow, a lot of questions. Sounds like you need a mentor. As for dogs in a pedigree, everyone will have their own opinion. Some people will love a certain dog and others will hate him, so it depends on who you want to listen to. Historically, it was thought that line breeding was the thing to do. This is where you see the same dog or closely related dogs in the pedigree. This locks in or increases the likelihood of getting the same good qualities as the many related dogs. It also increases the chances of getting the bad things as well as no dog is perfect. In recent years with the advent of genetic testing, the line breeding practice is being questioned as it has been shown that heavily line bred dogs, in general, as less healthy than more genetically diverse bred dogs.
The AKC website list the AKC titles, https://www.akc.org/sports/titles-and-abbreviations/
and will tell you what the requirements are for attaining the AKC titles. However, there are also UKC, FCI, IABCA and other registries that award titles and no, they are not all equivalent.
Conformation titles are like CH and GCH. Obedience titles are like CD, CDX, UD, RN, RA, OTCH, etc. Agility titles are like NA, NAJ, AX, AXJ, MACH, etc. Working titles are such as IPO I, II, or III, TD I, II, or III, Brevet, PSA, etc.
If you are looking for a house pet, you should probably concentrate on health more than anything. vWD is a very controversial topic. Breeding a carrier to a carrier will give you a probability of 25% clear, 50% carrier, and 25% affected. Also, you should understand that genetically affected does not mean clinically affected. The vast majority of genetically affected Dobermans will never have a bleeding episode. There is no doubt that a small percentage do, but most never will and nobody knows why. However, some people are more forgiving in this area than others.