This article is old and doesn't account for the FDA's latest update. While it contains some good information it also omits the fact that Golden Retrievers have been known as a breed to be prone to taurine deficiency (but DCM due to this is new).
It also doesn't include the fact that several of the dogs diagnosed with DCM and suspected nutritional, had normal taurine levels when tested. Dobermans often have normal taurine levels when diagnosed with their familial DCM.
For sure it seems like this is unfolding to be as big a puzzle as our breed's familial/genetic DCM.
here is some additional reading by a veterinary nutritionist: https://weethnutrition.wordpress.com...y-july-2-2019/
So what do we know?
1. Not all cases are taurine deficient. Many of the dogs diagnosed with diet-associated DCM in the last 2 years had low taurine levels, but not all. Whether low or normal taurine levels were measured, most dogs if caught early had improvement in clinical signs and reversal of cardiac changes when their previous diet was stopped and taurine was supplemented.
2.Not all dogs eating “grain-free” diets are affected. There are an estimated 20 million dogs eating diets marketed as “grain-free” that include some combination of legumes (peas, lentils, chickpeas, pinto, etc.) or potato (sweet or white), or both, and only (only?!) 515 reported cases of diet-associated DCM in dogs since 2017.
3.Large breed dogs are at an increased risk, but even small dogs are affected. Large breed dogs account for 338 out of the 515 reported cases, but Shih tzus and Shetland Sheepdogs are on the list, too.
4. Dry dog foods are the predominant type reported, but raw and home-cooked make the list, too. This probably has more to do with the relative popularity of these diet types rather than some inherent risk/benefit of a particular food type.
5.“Grain-Free” is a marketing ploy and not based on any scientific or nutritional studies. There is no proven health benefit to avoiding grains in your dog’s diet unless they have a documented food allergy (which is actually very uncommon). Grains play a lot of roles in the diet, and most of these roles are pretty helpful at optimizing health.
What don’t we know?
1.We don’t know the true scope of the problem. In people, underreporting of adverse drug effects is a well-known problem with some reviews indicating that as high as 95% of adverse reactions go unreported. Which means we may be seeing only the 5% of actual cases that were reported to the FDA and it could be closer to 10,000 dogs that are affected. It takes time to report a suspected adverse food event and Veterinarians and Caregivers may not realize the value of this reporting. Additionally, many owners may contact the pet food manufacturer if there is a problem rather than the FDA assuming that the information is getting relayed to the government agency.
2. We don’t know where the problem is coming from. All grain-free diets are being targeted by media outlets and some enthusiastic pet “advocates”, but we don’t know if this is a problem with all grain-free diets (probably not), peas and legumes (maybe, especially at high amounts), and/or questionable formulations and manufacturing processes (probably, yes). When peas are included at relatively low levels in the diet (less than 20% of the total recipe) or as occasional treats they do not appear to cause a problem, but none of the diets from any of the brands on the FDA’s recent list have gone through controlled feeding and digestibility trials to prove that they are safe and healthy for dogs at the level of legume inclusion they use, which can be over 40% of the recipe when all types and portions are added up.
3.We don’t know if this is an ingredient, dog, or manufacturer problem (or maybe all three). I suspect we will find that peas and potatoes in the hands of experienced formulators and experienced pet food manufacturers and for the majority of dogs are not the problem. The problem will be (like it was in the early 2000s when poorly formulated lamb and rice dog foods were causing DCM in dogs) a failure of certain manufacturers to account for variation in ingredient quality, changes in digestibility with processing, and individual variation in the dog population. Do affected dogs have low taurine production? Do they have increased loss from their gut? Do they have normal production and gut handling, but a low total food intake and are just getting inadequate intake overall? Meeting minimum nutrient levels on paper is not enough. Pet food manufacturers must know or hire knowledgeable individuals with an understanding for how nutrient levels vary in the raw materials, how they are affected by other ingredients or nutrients in the mix, the effect of cooking (or lack of cooking) on nutrient stability and bioavailability, and the wide range of variability in genetics and food intakes in the dog population. Basing diet formulations on market trends rather than nutritional science is a recipe for disaster.
4.We don’t know if the percentages of the brands reported simply represent their popularity and market share or an underlying problem with these companies. Maybe the three most frequent brands reported are really no better or worse than the least frequent three brands, they are just better at marketing their diets so more people buy them. I don’t have access to those market insights to know whether this is true or not, but I bet these companies do.