The cat will also need a place or two up high that the pup can't climb to, in every room they'll be in together. The cat can escape to that refuge if needed, but it will also be a place where he can observe what is going on without fear of being in danger. For a cat, being able to watch the obnoxious
stranger from a safe place is an important part of getting him comfortable around the puppy.
If anyone needs to be put away (in a crate, or safe space) to calm down a particular situation, it should be the puppy. But you shouldn't lock them away in separate areas of the house as a routine. "Ahh, the puppy's out; lock the cat up in the bedroom" No! Both the cat and the puppy need to be involved in the daily life of the household.
The more chance each gets to observe the other without being able to actually reach him, the better.
Obviously, supervision is a must. Which, hopefully, you'll be doing with your puppy whenever he's at large anyway, to work on his housebreaking and house manners.